Fungicide sprays to protect the new leaves and shoots need to begin at bud break in early spring. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. On dogwood, it can be a serious problem on young trees that are planted too deeply and on stressed, older trees. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org. They are large (1/4 inch long), black and white-spotted and swollen. Oysershell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi). This scale is usually controlled by beneficial insects and generally does not require spraying. If it is necessary to control cottony maple scale, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. ), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants. Damage on dogwood (Cornus florida) caused by dogwood club-gall midge.Joey Williamson, ©2013 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Infested twigs should be clipped off several inches below the girdled or infested portion and destroyed. Prune out dead and infected branches and twigs. It is popular in home and commercial landscaping because of the early spring flowers and bright red berries. Thoroughly spray the trunk, major branches and any wounds on the bark. Avoid transplanting dogwood seedlings from the woods as these plants may harbor the fungus. In late summer, younger stems will start to turn from green to red or yellow-green. The female lays eggs on the undersides of the leaves. On severely stressed trees, drying and browning of the areas between the veins and leaf drop can occur. Caution: Pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumblebees, can be adversely affected by the use of pesticides. Photo: John A. Davidson, University of Maryland, Bugwood.org. A light infestation will cause little harm, but a heavy infestation can stunt a tree. Additionally, there are less toxic spray fungicides that contain sulfur or copper soap, and biological control sprays for plant diseases that contain Bacillus subtilis. In autumn, when the leaves fall, the plant is afire with upright flaming red stems, adding plenty of interest to the winter garden. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, and dieback. 2-inch clusters of slightly fragrant flowers in spring give way to blue-black berries on red peduncles (flower stalks) in summer, a favorite of native wildlife. Heavy infestations of this scale may cause yellowing, wilting and eventually branch dieback. Prevention & Treatment: Most powdery mildews of landscape trees occur late in the summer and are therefore of little consequence. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. The use of the horticultural oil is a safer alternative to insecticides for spraying upward into a large tree (see Table 1 for specific products). It can be used as an accent, specimen or key plant, and in … Improve air circulation and sunlight penetration around the tree by removing overhanging branches and crowding vegetation. In spring, it produces a heavenly array of star-like blooms. There is only one generation each year, with the larva overwintering inside the twig. There are many species with various forms and climatic adaptations. This fungus survives from year to year on infected twigs, fruits, and other tissues. Prune out heavily infested branches. Adult scales are relatively protected from insecticides by their waxy covering. We have all heard the fables about how even the smallest can bring down the mighty. The first four fungicides listed have systemic properties and can be sprayed less often than sulfur or copper fungicides. The full-grown caterpillar is white with a pale brown head, and about 5/8 inch long. If an infestation is heavy, particularly on a young plant, the larvae may be sprayed with horticultural oil registered for landscape use. Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) The cornelian cherry (also known as European cornel) is a large … Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) Adult. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label. Prevention & Treatment: Planting resistant species and cultivars is an excellent option for managing this disease in the landscape. Nancy Doubrava, Former HGIC Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityJanet McLeod Scott, Former Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityJames H. Blake, EdD, Extension Associate/Adjunct Professor, Dept. The first symptoms that appear in the spring are spots on the leaves and flower bracts. The larvae bore into the tree and feed in the phloem (tissues that move plant foods produced by leaves) and outer sapwood. The Flowering dogwood tree or the red twig dogwood are some of the most beautiful and easy growing shrubs you can grow. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. High-value trees can be protected by mulching, pruning, and watering during droughts, and applying a fungicide. Planting species and cultivars with some degree of disease resistance is an excellent option for managing this problem in the landscape. See more ideas about dogwood trees, dogwood, flowering trees. The female lays eggs in tiny terminal leaves of the dogwood. Red twig dogwood shrubs should be planted somewhere in your yard where they can be easily viewed from a window, to take advantage of their status as top-notch specimen plants for winter landscapes. Read and follow all label instructions and precautions. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact UsHGIC@clemson.edu, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate, Bayer BioAdvanced Vegetable & Garden Insect Spray Concentrate, Spectracide Triazicide Insect Killer for Lawns & Landscapes Concentrate, Bonide Malathion 50% Insect Control Concentrate, Spectracide Immunox Multi-Purpose Fungicide Concentrate, Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable Fruit & Flower Concentrate, Bonide Infuse Systemic Disease Control Fungicide. Host Plants: Dogwood anthracnose infects flowering (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwoods (C. nuttallii). Dogwood trees are widely known for their delicate beauty, and the kousa variety adds a toughness that makes this species an excellent choice for home landscapes and urban areas. Product labels will provide information on how often to spray. These plants are relatively hardy but they do have their Achilles heels. Begin by raking up and destroying all fallen leaves. However, some scale species may have overlapping generations with an extended crawler emergence period, such as along the coast. Large trees are seriously injured from dieback of branches and loss of large patches of bark over mined areas on the trunk. Dogwood borer adult.James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, www.ipmimages.org. The galled twigs and terminals die prematurely and flowering is reduced. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. Remove all “water sprouts.” Rake and remove fallen leaves. Dogwood anthracnose is most severe only in areas of the state that are higher than 2000 feet. Red-twig dogwood (C. sericea) is very susceptible to powdery mildew. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. Jul 3, 2013 - Explore Rod Wilson's board "Dogwood trees", followed by 392 people on Pinterest. During the dormant season (when leaves have fallen from deciduous trees)  apply a horticultural oil (4% dormant rate) to control overwintering immature scales. More information about growing dogwoods is available in HGIC 1010, Dogwood. Maintaining good tree health is the best way to prevent flatheaded appletree borer. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. Spot anthracnose on dogwood (Cornus florida) petals.Joey Williamson, ©2009 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Although dogwoods are well adapted to South Carolina, they can be affected by many pests and diseases. There is one generation each year. The first evidence of the presence of the clubgall midge may be a wilted, deformed leaf. Look for the crawlers near the old scale covers. A light infestation is not serious. Prevention & Treatment: In most cases, this disease doesn’t result in significant damage, but severe and repeat infections each year can significantly weaken a tree. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. Anthracnose Disease. For fungicides to be effective, they must be applied as soon as symptoms are noticed. Insecticides labeled for use by homeowners against scale crawlers on dogwood include bifenthrin,  cyfluthrin, permethrin, lambda cyhalothrin, and malathion (see Table 1 for specific products). Warm, dry days and cool, damp nights favor disease development. The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. Diseased trees produce numerous epicormic shoots or “water sprouts” on the lower trunk and lower limbs, which soon become infected. The twig beyond the gall may die. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. They feed on sap by piercing the leaf or stem with their mouthparts and sucking. Dogwood—Cornus spp. Photo: Kansas Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org. Crawlers are present in May. Apply a thick layer of mulch (3 to 4 inches) that extends out beyond the foliage of the tree. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. The newly hatched larvae, or maggots, work their way into the developing twig. Selecting a tree appropriate for your site, planting it correctly, and providing regular care are essential steps to prevent common pest problems of dogwoods. The best growing zones for this perennial shrub are 2 through 9. This is true with a host of fungal and bacterial diseases of dogwood or tiny insects that may infect or infest your dogwood tree. A few cases have been reported at lower elevations where dogwoods are grown in very cool, moist, shady locations. Other common landscape dogwoods, such as Dogwood trees, scientifically known as the Cornus florida, are great for adding color to one's garden and landscape. For more information, contact the Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center. They may be found on leaves or stems and look like small brownish, grayish or blackish bumps. Commonly occurring insect pests of dogwood include the dogwood borer, dogwood club-gall midge, and scales. Read and follow all label instructions and precautions. Inside the tree, they feed just beneath the bark, consuming the inner bark and cambium. This is an armored scale and, unlike the cottony maple and calico scales, it does not produce honeydew. They are about the size of a pinhead and light-colored. They do not settle on the leaves but stay to feed on the twigs and branches. Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis). They move onto the bark to overwinter. Dogwoods have a very shallow root system, and thus are very susceptible to drought stress, especially newly planted trees in full sun. Initial infection could have entered through transplanting wounds or through wounds caused by insects, animals, lawn mowers, sunscald or weed whips. Dogwood Club-Gall Midge: The dogwood club-gall midge (Resseliella clavula) is a small fly, about 1/16-inch long. Although insects often damage dogwood trees, the damage is usually minor. Thin the canopy to increase air movement. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) cultivars ‘Appalachian Joy’, ‘Appalachian Blush ‘, ‘Appalachian Snow’, and ‘Appalachian Mist’ are very resistant to powdery mildew. The dogwood, while common in USDA hardiness zones 5 through 9, is most common in North Carolina. The red twig dogwood plant, also known as the Cornus sericea is a shrub that truly is at its best during the winter months. Infection that begins early in the season can be devastating, and the use of fungicides may be warranted. The dogwood tree is commonly grown for ornamental purposes, often as a standalone tree. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. Ovisacs are white, cottony masses that contain eggs. The adult midges emerge in May and the female deposits eggs in new terminal leaves. Infested young trees can be killed in one to two seasons. A tree planted this year will reach full-size in about a decade. The borer is off-white in color with a reddish-brown head. I have a couple of dogwood trees, both are about 40 years old. As with other dogwood diseases, keep leaf litter cleaned up from around the base of trees. The adults may be seen running over the bark of trees and fly when disturbed. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Edited and revised by Christa K. Carignan, Coordinator, University of Maryland Extension, 12/ 2019. Poor leaf color, unhealthy plant growth, twig dieback, and even tree death are typical symptoms of distressed dogwoods. Prune out and destroy the galls in summer before the maggots drop to the ground to pupate in the fall. Powdery mildew on dogwood (Cornus florida) leaves.James Blake, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs. In early fall, the larvae make exit holes in the galls. You’ll learn to: • Know the symptoms of the most common dogwood problems • Choose healthy trees from the start • Practice proper dogwood care. Septoria leaf spots on dogwood (Cornus florida).Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, www.ipmimages.org. By Mary Kay Malinoski, Principal Agent, University of Maryland Extension. In the front yard is a pink dogwood approx 25 ft tall and in the backyard a white one, approx 50 ft tall. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. Adults emerge from dogwood trees around mid-May and continue throughout most of the summer. Large, established trees that are infested often lack vigor and have rough, knotty areas on the trunk and large branches. Prevention & Treatment: Clean up and dispose of infected leaves on the ground and on the tree, if possible, since this is where these fungi survive the winter. The dogwood leaves turn purple and red during the fall. The tree also makes a visual contribution year-round. Red winter stems of 'Cardinal' (Cornus sericea) is a shrub native to Minnesota with colorful red or yellow winter bark that provides great winter interest.As a landscape plant, redosier dogwood is extremely versatile. If so, how? They touch other bushes (Arctic Fire Redtwig dogwood) that also appear to now have spots. Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. I thought it started on one bush and it appears to now be on all 4. Scales: Several scale insects are pests of dogwood. After their final molt, they lose the powdery covering and change color. Cercospora and Septoria leaf spots are very similar in size and appearance. There is one generation each year. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. Infected leaves have tan spots with purple edges, dry brown margins or large blotches on them. Since dogwood borer adults may be present from late April through July, several applications may be needed for good control. Discula and spot anthracnose are fungal infections often found in dogwood trees. As they grow, they will eat all of the leaf except the midrib. If spotting does not appear on the bracts, the disease may not be severe on the leaves. Beautiful All Year Round Highly disease resistant and trouble-free. 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